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Grupo de Fé

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TTR - Little

The Cartoonival has a little bit of everything! From classic carnival prizes to Toontown's famous antics, there's no party quite like it. And don't forget Riggy Marole, the host with the most and self-proclaimed Emcee that keeps the whole event running!

TTR - Little

On September 19th, the Cartoonival kicks off with a series of blog posts by our very own Riggy Marole to keep you entertained and in the Toontown spirit. Here's a little synopsis of everything that the celebration has to offer:

What, you've never seen a Snowtoon before? We're just like any regular Toon, only made of snow. The confusing part of it all -- my name's Snowman! This is Snowball, Snowangel, Snowshoe, and Snowcat, the rest of the chorus. We were supposed to host a special Winter Caroling show in Toon Hall later today. There's just a tiny issue: Toon Hall is too warm! Apparently some Scientoons moved in this year who like their hot cocoa a little too hot.

Centromeres are essential for chromosome segregation, yet their DNA sequences evolve rapidly. In most animals and plants that have been studied, centromeres contain megabase-scale arrays of tandem repeats. Despite their importance, very little is known about the degree to which centromere tandem repeats share common properties between different species across different phyla. We used bioinformatic methods to identify high-copy tandem repeats from 282 species using publicly available genomic sequence and our own data.

Our methods are compatible with all current sequencing technologies. Long Pacific Biosciences sequence reads allowed us to find tandem repeat monomers up to 1,419 bp. We assumed that the most abundant tandem repeat is the centromere DNA, which was true for most species whose centromeres have been previously characterized, suggesting this is a general property of genomes. High-copy centromere tandem repeats were found in almost all animal and plant genomes, but repeat monomers were highly variable in sequence composition and length. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis of sequence homology showed little evidence of sequence conservation beyond approximately 50 million years of divergence. We find that despite an overall lack of sequence conservation, centromere tandem repeats from diverse species showed similar modes of evolution.

Cichlid fish are another clade in which we identified both conservation and rapid divergence of centromere repeats. Lake Malawi cichlids and the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) had candidate centromere DNAs that shared 78% sequence similarity, although tilapia diverged from other cichlids 45 million years ago (MYA). The Princess cichlid Neolamprologus brichardi (from Lake Tanganyika) had a candidate centromere repeat with no sequence similarity to either the Lake Malawi cichlids or Nile tilapia, though Neolamprologus diverged from Lake Malawi cichlids only 30 MYA. Similar patterns of both conservation and rapid change can be seen in the grasses (Figure 3c,d). A maize-like centromere repeat can be found in Panicum, Setaria, and even in a species as distant as rice (Oryza), which diverged from maize approximately 41 MYA. In contrast, sorghum-maize (9 MYA) and Hordeum-Aegilops (14 MYA) comparisons show little to no sequence similarity.

To assess the rate at which sequence similarity decays on phylogenetic timescales, we performed node-averaged phylogenetically independent contrasts [91, 92]. In order to account for shared history in comparisons of sequence similarity, this method calculates the average sequence similarity between each pair of taxa spanning a node to generate a single value for each node in the tree. Since the taxa of interest span a wide range of eukaryotes and our analyses are relatively insensitive to branch length estimates, we used a tree based on the NCBI taxonomy [93] and repeated our analyses on ten random resolutions of the tree in order to accommodate unresolved relationships. As most unresolved nodes were shallow, these random resolutions had little effect on the quantitative results of the analyses performed (data not shown). All phylogenetic analyses were conducted using the R package APE [94]. We then performed regression analysis in order to determine the relationship between node age (as determined with TimeTree [95]) and node-averaged sequence similarity. We used the R package bbmle2 to fit the simple exponential model H αtλ, where H is the node-averaged homology and t is node age, and α is the intercept.

you might want to try and tighten the suspension damping level.its a little round thingy at the bottom of the rear suspension spring.its not the preload adjust,but it's the adjuster at the very bottom that can make it alot stiffer or alot softer,try turning it helps alot if you do any jumping or when you do wheelies;less spongy. 041b061a72


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