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Cherry Blossoms After Winter - Episode 6 (VOSTF...

The story follows Mitsuyoshi Tada, a boy who has never known love. He is taking pictures of the cherry blossoms in full bloom when he meets Teresa Wagner, a transfer student from Larsenburg (ラルセンブルク, Rarusenburuku) which can be assumed means Luxembourg, a European country. It seems that she got separated from her travel companion upon arriving in Japan. Tada helps her and brings her to his grandfather's coffee shop. Teresa's travel companion and bodyguard Alec arrives and beats up Kaoru misunderstanding him as chasing after Teresa. They discover that the hotel they're supposed to be staying in is actually next to Tada's cafe. The next day, they enroll in Tada's school and are in the same class. Alec agrees on joining the Photography Club on Teresa's request that she also wants to take great pictures. Mitsuyoshi is actually an aspiring photographer and wants to become like his father, who was a famous photographer. Mitsuyoshi lost his parents in a car accident during their childhood. The one last photo his father took and the camera were the only things that came back. The story focuses on the adventures of Tada and his friends and their building relationships.

Cherry Blossoms After Winter - Episode 6 (VOSTF...

Thaumarchaeaota are among the most abundant microorganisms on the planet, and are significant players in the global nitrogen cycle. All cultivated members of the phylum are capable of performing the first and rate-limiting step of nitrification - the aerobic oxidation of ammonia to nitrite. In marine environments, ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) have been found to greatly outnumber their bacterial counterparts. However, much about their ecology remains largely unknown. Monterey Bay, a non-estuarine embayment on the central California coast, is an ideal site for studying the dynamics of natural thaumarchaeal assemblages, given the highly dynamic nature of the Bay waters with seasonal upwelling episodes and the associated steep gradients in environmental variables. In the present study, we examined thaumarchaeal population dynamics in the upper Monterey Bay water column (0-500 m) using multiple molecular markers. Following high-resolution spatiotemporal sampling (i.e., up to 10 depths sampled monthly over a period of 2 years) at two stations in the Bay, we quantified thaumarchaeal functional genes - the ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) gene and its `shallow' and `deep' marine ecotypes, and variants of the marine nitrite reductase (nirK) gene. The abundances of both genes were regressed against environmental variables to gain insights into factors shaping their spatiotemporal dynamics in the Bay. Gene abundances at both stations varied with depth and season, with winter months generally having several orders of magnitude greater abundances. Statistical analyses point to differential controls on the gene abundances, with depth and temperature potentially being the major environmental determinants of thaumarchaeal population size. Our results also highlight the importance of employing multiple marker genes to gain a more highly resolved picture of thaumarchaeal population dynamics in complex environmental systems such as the coastal ocean.

Microalgae in the division Haptophyta play key roles in the marine ecosystem and in global biogeochemical processes. Despite their ecological importance, knowledge on seasonal dynamics, community composition and abundance at the species level is limited due to their small cell size and few morphological features visible under the light microscope. Here, we present unique data on haptophyte seasonal diversity and dynamics from two annual cycles, with the taxonomic resolution and sampling depth obtained with high-throughput sequencing. From outer Oslofjorden, S Norway, nano- and picoplanktonic samples were collected monthly for 2 years, and the haptophytes targeted by amplification of RNA/cDNA with Haptophyta-specific 18S rDNA V4 primers. We obtained 156 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), from c. 400.000 454 pyrosequencing reads, after rigorous bioinformatic filtering and clustering at 99.5%. Most OTUs represented uncultured and/or not yet 18S rDNA-sequenced species. Haptophyte OTU richness and community composition exhibited high temporal variation and significant yearly periodicity. Richness was highest in September-October (autumn) and lowest in April-May (spring). Some taxa were detected all year, such as Chrysochromulina simplex, Emiliania huxleyi and Phaeocystis cordata, whereas most calcifying coccolithophores only appeared from summer to early winter. We also revealed the seasonal dynamics of OTUs representing putative novel classes (clades HAP-3-5) or orders (clades D, E, F). Season, light and temperature accounted for 29% of the variation in OTU composition. Residual variation may be related to biotic factors, such as competition and viral infection. This study provides new, in-depth knowledge on seasonal diversity and dynamics of haptophytes in North Atlantic coastal waters. 2015 The Authors. Molecular Ecology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

To resolve varied and sometimes conflicting accounts of spawning and habitat characteristics for winter flounder Pseudopleuronectes americanus, seasonal patterns in abundance and reproductive condition were investigated in the New York Bight, near the southern edge of their current reproductive range. Fish were collected from trawl surveys on the inner continental shelf from October 2006 to October 2007. Pseudopleuronectes americanus were most abundant during January and April surveys, were rarely collected in August, with intermediate abundances in June and October. Measurements of fish condition [hepato-somatic index (I(H)), condition factor (K) and the per cent dry mass of muscle tissue (%M(D))] and reproductive condition [gonado-somatic index (I(G))] were determined to evaluate seasonal changes in energy accumulation and depletion and reproduction. Males and females had similar patterns in body and reproductive condition, although the magnitude of change was greater for females. I(H) values were highest during spring and early summer, suggesting increased feeding following spawning. K and %M(D) increased through spring and summer then declined in the autumn and winter concurrent with gonadal development. Gonads began developing in the autumn, and in January, I(G) values approached spawning levels, with many spent individuals collected in spring. Within these general patterns, however, there was a large degree of variability among individuals, and a few mature non-reproductive ('skipped spawning') females were observed. In the period after spawning, increased energy intake, indicated by increased I(H), may influence reproductive output since this energy is gradually transferred to the muscle and used for gonadal development in the forthcoming year. The occurrence of ripening individuals on the inner continental shelf in January suggests that these fish either rapidly move into estuaries to spawn by February-March or they remain on the inner shelf to spawn, or

Seasonal changes in nitrogen assimilation have been studied in the western English Channel by sampling at approximately weekly intervals for 12 months. Nitrate concentrations showed strong seasonal variations. Available nitrogen in the winter was dominated by nitrate but this was close to limit of detection from May to September, after the spring phytoplankton bloom. The 15N uptake experiments showed that nitrate was the nitrogen source for the spring phytoplankton bloom but regenerated nitrogen supported phytoplankton productivity throughout the summer. The average annual f-ratio was 0.35, which demonstrated the importance of ammonia regeneration in this dynamic temperate region. Nitrogen uptake rate measurements were related to the phytoplankton responsible by assessing the relative abundance of nitrate reductase (NR) genes and the expression of NR among eukaryotic phytoplankton. Strong signals were detected from NR sequences that are not associated with known phylotypes or cultures. NR sequences from the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum were highly represented in gene abundance and expression, and were significantly correlated with f-ratio. The results demonstrate that analysis of functional genes provides additional information, and may be able to give better indications of which phytoplankton species are responsible for the observed seasonal changes in f-ratio than microscopic phytoplankton identification. PMID:21544101

Winter and summer annuals in the Chihuahuan Desert have been intensively studied in recent years but little is known about the similarities and differences in the dynamics between these two communities. Using 15 yr of census data from permanent quadrats, this paper compared the characteristics and temporal dynamics of these two distinct, spatially co-existent but temporally segregated communities. Although the total number of summer annual species recorded during our 15 yr of observation was higher than winter annuals, the mean number of species observed each year was higher in the winter community. The winter community exhibited lower temporal variation in total plant abundance and populations of individual species, lower species turnover rate and higher evenness than the summer community. The rank abundances of species in winter were significantly positively correlated for a period of up to 7 yr while in summer significant positive correlations in rank abundance disappeared after 2 to 3 yr. The higher seasonal species diversity (i.e. number of species observed in each season) in winter rather than the overall special pool (over 15 yr) may be responsible for the greater community stability of winter annuals. The difference in long-term community dynamics between the two communities of annual plants are likely due to the differences in total species pool, life history traits (e.g. seed size), and seasonal climatic regimes.

Titan's northern spring equinox occurred in August 2009. General Circulation Models (e.g. Lebonnois et al., 2012) predict strong modifications of the global circulation in this period, with formation of two circulation cells instead of the pole-to-pole cell that occurred during northern winter. This winter single cell, which had its descending branch at the north pole, was at the origin of the enrichment of molecular abundances and high stratopause temperatures observed by Cassini/CIRS at high northern latitudes (e.g. Achterberg et al., 2011, Coustenis et al., 2010, Teanby et al., 2008, Vinatier et al., 2010). The predicted dynamical seasonal variations after the equinox have strong impact on the spatial distributions of trace gas, temperature and aerosol abundances. We will present here an analysis of CIRS limb-geometry datasets acquired in 2010 and 2011 that we used to monitor the seasonal evolution of the vertical profiles of temperature, molecular (C2H2, C2H6, HCN, ..) and aerosol abundances. 041b061a72


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